Volume 5, Issue 2, December 2019, Page: 82-90
Tuberculosis Incidence and Mortality Rates Among People Living with HIV Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy at the Buea Regional Hospital: A Seven Year Retrospective Study
Henry Dilonga Meriki, Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon; TB Diagnostic Unit, Regional Hospital Buea, Buea, Cameroon; Department of Public Health and Hygiene, University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon
Kah Emmanuel Nji, TB Diagnostic Unit, Regional Hospital Buea, Buea, Cameroon; Department of Public Health and Hygiene, University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon
Kukwah Anthony Tufon, Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon; TB Diagnostic Unit, Regional Hospital Buea, Buea, Cameroon
Yaoh Adolf Tah, Department of Public Health and Hygiene, University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon
Pascal Nji Atanga, Cameroon Baptist Convention Health Service, Mutengene, Cameroon
Anna Longdoh Njunda, Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon
Irene Ane Anyangwe, Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon
Received: May 20, 2019;       Accepted: Jun. 25, 2019;       Published: Jul. 31, 2019
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijhpebs.20190502.11      View  101      Downloads  36
Abstract
Introduction: The use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has dramatically decreased HIV-associated morbidity and mortality in high-and low-income countries with a corresponding reduction in tuberculosis (TB) incidence. Nevertheless, the risk of TB remains substantially higher in people living with HIV (PLHIV) compared to non-HIV infected individuals. In Cameroon, free ART was introduced in 2007 and our understanding of the possible role of ART in reducing HIV-associated TB remains limited. We assessed TB incidence, mortality and risk factors for TB and mortality among PLHIV treated at Buea Regional Hospital between 2008 and 2014. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective study we reviewed the records of 1,477 HIV patients on ART. The data was entered and analysed using SPSS version 21. Bivariate and Multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to determine the risk factors associated with TB and mortality occurrences at 5% significance level. Results: Of the 1477 patients’ records that was reviewed, females (70.7%) constituted a greater proportion. Majority of the participants (60.5%) were between the ages 21-40 years (mean: 37.5 ± 11.5. SD). A total of 209 patients developed TB giving an overall TB incidence density rate 4.25/100PYR (95% CI: 2.47-6.46). There was an increasing trend in the incidence of TB over the years from 1.69 (95% CI: 0.72-1.98) in 2008 to 19.63 (95% CI: 7.36-21.20) in 2014. The overall mortality rate was 12.4% (183/1477) of which 38.8% (71/183) of them were on TB treatment or previously treated for TB. In a multivariate analysis, low CD4 cells level at ART initiation (AOR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.11-.2.10), WHO HIV clinical stage 3 and 4 (AOR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.01-2.22) were significantly associated with increase odds of TB occurrence. Conclusion: Even in the era of HAART, TB still remains a significant cause of mortality among PLHIV and therefore efforts should be scaled-up for early diagnosis and prompt treatment of TB.
Keywords
Antiretroviral Therapy, Incidence, Mortality, Tuberculosis, PLHIV
To cite this article
Henry Dilonga Meriki, Kah Emmanuel Nji, Kukwah Anthony Tufon, Yaoh Adolf Tah, Pascal Nji Atanga, Anna Longdoh Njunda, Irene Ane Anyangwe, Tuberculosis Incidence and Mortality Rates Among People Living with HIV Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy at the Buea Regional Hospital: A Seven Year Retrospective Study, International Journal of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Education and Behavioural Science. Vol. 5, No. 2, 2019, pp. 82-90. doi: 10.11648/j.ijhpebs.20190502.11
Copyright
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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