Volume 5, Issue 2, December 2019, Page: 156-163
Differences in Coping Self-efficacy, Social Relations and Depression Among HIV-infected Ethnic Danes and Non-ethnic Danes in Denmark: A Cross-sectional Study
Ane Soendergaard, Department of Infectious Diseases, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark
Tinne Laursen, Department of Infectious Diseases, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark
Margaret Chesney, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, USA
Morten Sodemann, Department of Infectious Diseases, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark
Lotte Rodkjaer, Department of Infectious Diseases, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark
Received: Nov. 23, 2019;       Accepted: Dec. 16, 2019;       Published: Dec. 24, 2019
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijhpebs.20190502.21      View  633      Downloads  395
Health-related quality of life is lower in people living with HIV compared to the general population, particularly because of higher levels of depression. Little is known about the differences between HIV-infected ethnic Danes and HIV-infected non-ethnic Danes at risk of depression. This study aimed to explore coping styles and social relations among HIV-infected ethnic Danes and non-ethnic Danes in two outpatient clinics. HIV-infected individuals from two out-patients clinics were included in a questionnaire-based study. The Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) was used to assess the prevalence and severity of depressive symptoms. Coping was measured using the Coping Self-Efficacy scale (CSE) and social relations factors were marital status, loneliness, disclosure of HIV status and satisfaction with support from family and friends. Among 442 HIV-infected individuals, 21% were in risk of depression assessed by The Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II ≥ 20) and higher among non-ethnic Danes. The difference in mean Coping self-efficacy (CSE) between those at risk of depression and those not at risk was -78.95 95%CI (-89.10; -68.81). Non-ethnic Danes had higher scores on two CSE subscales, compared with ethnic Danish HIV-infected individuals. No ethnic difference was found in the subscale social support. Reduced logistic regression model showed that loneliness, satisfaction with support from family and friends and marital status was associated with risk of depression. Improvement of CSE and social relations seems to be important to resilience to depression among HIV-infected individuals. Lack of social support might be a barrier for HIV-infected achieving resilience to depression, despite ethnicity.
HIV, Coping, Depression, Social Relations, Ethnicity
To cite this article
Ane Soendergaard, Tinne Laursen, Margaret Chesney, Morten Sodemann, Lotte Rodkjaer, Differences in Coping Self-efficacy, Social Relations and Depression Among HIV-infected Ethnic Danes and Non-ethnic Danes in Denmark: A Cross-sectional Study, International Journal of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Education and Behavioural Science. Vol. 5, No. 2, 2019, pp. 156-163. doi: 10.11648/j.ijhpebs.20190502.21
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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