Volume 6, Issue 1, June 2020, Page: 10-14
Ocular Manifestations in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patients in the Pre-HAART and HAART Era
Anjana Somanath, Uvea Consultant, Department of Uvea, Aravind Eye Care System, Madurai, India
Rathinam Sivakumar, Head of Department – Uvea, Aravind Eye Care System, Madurai, India
Radhika Thundikandy, Uvea Consultant, Department of Uvea, Aravind Eye Care System, Madurai, India
Vedhanayaki Rajesh, Uvea Consultant, Department of Uvea, Aravind Eye Care System, Madurai, India
Received: Apr. 5, 2020;       Accepted: Apr. 27, 2020;       Published: May 28, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijhpebs.20200601.12      View  334      Downloads  155
Abstract
The human immunodeficiency virus infection causes a wide range of ocular manifestations. It is a growing concern in the developing countries. Now, the government provides the highly active antiretroviral therapy free of cost. But ocular manifestations continue to arise in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection. Hence a comparitive analysis of the disease pattern is important in assessing the ocular manifestations in the pre–HAART and HAART era. The aim of this retrospective series is to analyse the ocular manifestations in Human Immunodeficiency Virus patients in the pre-HAART and HAART era This retrospective study includes Human Immunodeficiency Virus positive patients from the pre-Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) (1995-2000) and HAART era (2005-2017). Patients were assessed for the ocular manifestations. This study included 83 patients in the pre HAART era and 98 patients in the HAART era. Cytomegalovirus retinitis was the most common ocular manifestation in the pre-HAART and the HAART era. Inspite of free availability of the antiretroviral therapy, the results of our study has not shown a reduction in the ocular manifestations in the HAART era. Awareness among the high risk population, screening of population at community health centers, private health sectors and engaging non-government organizations for awareness in the community can help in early diagnosis of HIV. This may cause a reduction in the ocular manifestations in individuals with Human Immunodeficiency Virus.
Keywords
Cytomegalovirus Retinitis, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy
To cite this article
Anjana Somanath, Rathinam Sivakumar, Radhika Thundikandy, Vedhanayaki Rajesh, Ocular Manifestations in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patients in the Pre-HAART and HAART Era, International Journal of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Education and Behavioural Science. Vol. 6, No. 1, 2020, pp. 10-14. doi: 10.11648/j.ijhpebs.20200601.12
Copyright
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
Aniruddha Agarwal, Ramandeep Singh, Aman Sharmaetal. Ocular Manifestations in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in the Pre-HAART Versus the HAART Era in the North Indian Population. Ocular Immunology & Inflammation, 2016; 00 (00): 1–9.
[2]
Venkatesh KK, Biswas J, Kumarasamy N. Impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on ophthalmic manifestations in human immunodeficiency virus/ acquired immunedeficiency syndrome. Indian J Ophthalmol, 2008; 56: 391-3.
[3]
UNAIDS data (2018). www.unaids.org. Accessed on 26-5-2018.
[4]
Kumarasamy N, Solomon S, Chaguturu S K, Cecelia AJetal. The changing natural history of HIV disease: before and after the introduction of generic antiretroviral therapy in southern India. Clin Infect Dis. 2005 Nov15; 41 (10): 1525-8.
[5]
Sridharan Sudharshan, Sheikh Kaleemunnisha, Akbar Ashraf Banu, Sankaran Shrikrishna, Amala E George, B Rajesh Babu, Bella Devaleenal, Nagalingeshwaran Kumarasamy, Jyotirmay Biswas. Ocular lesions in 1,000 consecutive HIV positive patients in India: along-term study. J Ophthalmic Inflamm Infect. 2013; 3: 2.
[6]
Kumarasamy N, Solomon S, Chaguturu SK, Mahajan A P, Flanigan T P, Balakrishnan P, et al. The safety, tolerability and effectiveness of generic antiretroviral drug regimens for HIV-infected patients in south India. AIDS2003; 17: 2265-71.
[7]
Kumarasamy N, Vallabhaneni S, Flanigan T P, Balakrishnan T P, Cecelia A, Carpenter C J, et al. Rapid viral load suppression following generic highly active antiretroviral therapy in Southern Indian HIV infected patients. AIDS 2005; 19: 625-7.
[8]
Venkatesh Kartik K, Biswas J, Kumarasamy N. Impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on ophthalmic manifestations in human immunodeficiency virus /acquired immunedeficiency syndrome. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2008; 56 (5): 391-393.
[9]
Moraes HV, Jr. Ocular manifestations of HIV/AIDS. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2002; 13: 397–403.
[10]
NACO (2014)'Annual Report2013-14’.
[11]
National Strategic plan2017-2024.
[12]
Gary N. Holland, AIDS and Ophthalmology: The First Quarter Century. Am J Ophthalmol. 2008 Mar; 145 (3): 397-408.
[13]
Accorinti M, Pirraglia M P, Corradi R, Corsi C, Fabiani C, Pivetti-Pezzi P. Changing patterns of ocular manifestations in HIV seropositive patients treated with HAART. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2006Sep-Oct; 16 (5): 728-32.
[14]
http://naco.gov.in/hiv-facts-figures.
[15]
https://www.unaids.org/en/regionscountries/countries/india.
[16]
Shukla Y, Rohit B K, Tiwari R, Kasar P K. Sociodemographic profile of people living with HIV/AIDS attending ART center in a tertiary-care hospital in central India. Int J Med Sci Public Health2015; 4: 1464-1467
[17]
Sharma R, Profile of HIV-positives and determinants with mode of transmission of HIV /AIDS patients on anti-retroviral treatment center at civil hospital, Ahmedabad. Indian J Sex Transm Dis32: 14–18.
[18]
Sudharshan et al. Ocular lesions in 1000 consecutive HIV patients in India: along term study. J ournal of Opthalmic Inflammation and Infection, 2013, 3: 2.
[19]
Jabs D A. Ocular manifestations of HIV infection. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 1995; 93: 623-83.
[20]
Biswas J, Madhavan H N, George A E, Kumarasamy N, Solomon S. Ocular lesions associated with HIV infection in India: a series of 100 consecutive patients evaluated at a referral center. Am J Ophthalmol. 2000 Jan; 129 (1): 9-15.
[21]
Thorne J E et al. Causes of visual acuity loss among patients with AIDS and cytomegalovirus retinitis in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Ophthalmology. 2006 Aug; 113 (8): 1441-5.
[22]
Goldberg D E, Smithen L M, Angelilli A, Freeman W R. HIV-associated retinopathy in the HAART era. Retina. 2005 Jul-Aug; 25 (5): 633-49.
[23]
Lin Y C, Yang C H, Lin C P, et al. Cytomegalovirus retinitis and immune recovery uveitis in AIDS patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy in Taiwanese. Ocular Immunology and Inflammation. 2008; 16 (3): 83–87.
[24]
Karavellas, Marietta P et al. Long-term posterior and anterior segment complications of immune recovery uveitis associated with cytomegalovirus retinitis. American Journal of Ophthalmology, Volume130, Issue1, 57–64.
Browse journals by subject